Two parts of the brain

Here is an image from the 10th art of neuroscience contest. It is striking in that it gives a view of the brain, where there are two major parts: the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Of course there are a lot of interesting structures hidden within the cerebrum, but still: Is this a von Neumann architecture, memory and processor? No, we already know that memory is an ubiquitous phenomenon and not localized to any brain structure (notwithstanding the function of the hippocampus). How about a CPU and a GPU? Closer, since the cerebellum is (a) structurally remarkably homogeneous, suitable to performing many routine operations (b) fast, by an order of magnitude faster than the cortex, (c) considered to perform ‘supportive’ functions in terms of smooth motor movements, complex perception, but also standard thought processes, always improving fast coordination and integration of information (d) also, as it mostly speeds up, improves and calibrates brain processes, an organism is able to survive without it  (e) contains very many processing units (50% of all neurons of the brain), even though its function is subsidiary to cortex, (f) has a very constrained feedback modality, a bottleneck in information transfer through deep cerebellar nuclei, even though it receives large amounts of information from the cortex. Although the cerebellum does not do graphical displays, it may “image” cortical information, i.e. represent it in a specific, simple format, and use this to guide motor movements, while providing only limit feedback about its performance. Food for thought.

Consciousness made easy

IMS Photo Contest 2017

For a long time I didn’t know what research on consciousness was to be about. Was it being able to feel and think? Was it perceptual awareness (as in ‘did you hear that sound’?) What did attention have to do with it (the searchlight hypothesis), i.e. lots of stored information is present but not ‘in consciousness’ at any given moment in time?
Finally, while discussing  the issue that no one has a good theory of anesthesia (TMK), (i.e. how it happens and why it works), it occurred to me we can simplify the question, and make it solvable in a fairly easy way:
Consciousness (C) made easy is just the difference between awake state W  and anesthesia/slow wave sleep SWS/A.

C = W – SWS/A

The difference is what makes up consciousness. We can measure this difference in a number of ways, brain imaging, neuronal spiking behavior, EEG/EcoG, LFPs, voltammetry of neurochemicals, possibly gene expression, and quantify it. Sure it is not a simple task, and people may disagree on how to integrate measurements for a solid theory of what is happening, but conceptually it is at least clearly defined.


Charles Wilson (2008), Scholarpedia, 3(6):1410.               doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.1410

An important difference is the appearance of up-and down states when unconscious. Possibly in this state only the purely mechanical coupling of the neuronal mass remains, and the fine-tuned interactions by chemical receptors and channels is simplified such that the high entropy asynchronous spiking is abolished.

It would be interesting to further investigate the soliton theory for this question.